Search Bottoms Up Bottoms Up Top Down is an architectural element comprised of a ificant cornice above, and a corresponding counter below, that frame a spatial void for service function activities between them. Bottoms Up is used in retail as a cash wrap, in the workplace as a reception desk, in cafes as a coffee counter and in clubs as a bar.
A bartender's actions are highlighted in the interior space. The soffit, which often differs from the cornice in material or color, may be used for racks to display glasses. If a cornice and counter are mirror bottkms of one another in shape, form and placement, one perceives the configuration as a single form. Bottoms Up le people to a point of interest in a space, but the physical structure prevents them from going behind the bar.
The implied plane of the counter and cornice creates a bottpms, separating bartenders from the people. The view of clientele looking into the enclosed bar area is drastically different from the one the bartender sees as he looks out to the people gathered around the bar. The bartender's vantage spot also allows her to see the entire space. Everything on the exterior of Bottoms Up is a leisure experience, and everything on the interior is service or task oriented.
Based on Pythagorean interpretation, three is the of the whole-beginning, middle and end. Aristotle believed that agge tragic plot "must have a beginning, middle and end and be confined to a single sequence of events, with the episodes arranged in such a way that if any one were changed or taken away, the effect of the whole would be seriously damaged. Architecture may be observed from beginning-to-end as well as from end-to-beginning left-to-right or right-to-left.
The plan of a Palladian villa may be read in much the same fashion, as each side of the central axis is often a mirror of the other. As Palladio noted, "Beauty will result from the form and correspondence of the whole, with respect to the several parts with that the structure may appear an entire and complete body, wherein each member agrees with the other, and all necessary to compose what you intend to form.
Although the counter is the primary destination within a drinking environment, the majority of the time the counter face is not seen due to the amount of stools or people standing or sitting in front of the surface. Therefore, the counter's function is defined by the horizontal surface for the exchange of drinks from bartender to patron.
Middle: The void that is created between the counter and cornice works as a showcase for the action, an open window into the liveliness and high energy value of a bar-bartending, drinking, interactions between bartender and patrons, as well as patrons with patrons. Bartenders' performance of "entertainment pouring" was popularized in Las Vegas nightclubs and the movie "Cocktail" in which Brian Flanagan Tom Cruise juggles Martini shakers and ice cubes.
Brian meets up with bar veteran Doug Couglin Bryan Brownand they put together a dance-duo bar-tending act, taking five minutes to a mix a drink as they dance and toss gin bottles behind the bar to cutting-edge rock music. The patrons, instead of demanding the booze, are dazzled by their antics and cheer them on.
As a result, the protagonist bartenders and "entertainment pouring" become wildly popular. Digital technology in the middle portion of the Bottoms Up composition also has entertainment value, including Loiking transformational Chameleon2 and Pulsate3. End: A ceiling component mimics the shape of the bar, and has more than one purpose. When crowds of people occupy nightclubs and bars, sightlines can be drastically reduced, especially if the floor is recessed for a dance floor.
The reflection of the counter on the ceiling plane draws a user's attention upward to the bar area, making it a destination node. During the early 20th century, the discovery of the Gestalt effect by German psychologists further demonstrates how the Bottom's Up applies to the laws of symmetry, continuity, proximity and bottlms this effect serves as a mechanism that allows the mind to recognize figures and whole forms instead of a collection of simple lines and curves.
This theory evaluates the perceptual processing of a broken shape that the brain completes as a single entity. Gor and closure are strongly reinforced by the proximity of the symmetric components that are perceived to be a collective object in space. The principal of "elemental connectedness" states that forms that share a common border tend to be grouped together. The positive volumes are considered dramatic enough to link the two end points and better define the space between the void.
In addition to these sources, evidence comes from historical photographs, bottims those from the American Memory Collection in the Library of Congress.
These historical sources also reveal the use of Bottoms not only in bars boftoms nightclubs, but also on boats and ships. The Decade of Many of the mid-century photographs examined for the bar and nightclub practice type come from the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. In particular, the archive contains the work of the prolific architectural photographers Samuel H. Gottscho and William H. Schleisner who documented architecture and interior de in buildings primarily in the northwest portion of the United States, particularly New York City and Miami Beach, Florida.
Many hotel examples of Bottoms Up come from Miami Beach hotels beginning in the s era. From these images, like the one of the cocktail room at the Hotel Columbus and the Barnaby Bar on the S. Independence it is possible to trace the de evolution of what eventually solidified as the archetypical practice Bottoms Up. In early examples, the cornice is not a separate component whose shape is the same as the bar counter, but rather a ceiling treatment that defines the space below it.
Russell T. Pancoast, architect of the Hotel Columbus, and Morris Lapidus, architect of many Miami Beach hotels, deed elaborate multi-layered ceilings, each cut-out defining a functional space below it. The ceiling in this case provides the theatrical flair that defined cocktail lounges as entertainment destinations. The Botfoms of There are only a few documented photographs of cruise ship interiors, and of those, an even smaller that illustrate the Bottoms Up practice.
However, an early photographic example of a relationship between a wall, ceiling and counter is the Barbary Bar and lounge space, taken in by Gottscho-Schleisner before the S. Independence launched for her ror voyage across the Atlantic. The wall and ceiling cornice shape was no doubt inspired by the waves of the ocean.
The cornice dropped about two-feet from the overhead plane.
It did not conform to the shape of the bar, but overhung it. The photograph reveals that the soffit was visible, but it appears to have been executed with modular ceiling tiles. After a career in retail de Lapidus turned to hotels in Miami Beach where he used commercial de effects, such as sweeping curves, backlit floating ceilings and ameboid shapes that he called woggles.
One bar consisted of a long sinuous line of bar counter with Down the Line stools; above the counter the cornice also curved dramatically, but not in the same shape as the counter. This is a good, early example of Bottoms Up in which the counter and cornice are not mirror images.
Billboard,7 applied to the back wall, provided large-scale imagery that simulated textural interest, especially so since the counter, stools and flooring were smooth and flat. The second bar at the Biltmore Terrace appeared more conventional; the bar counter curved slightly. The same upholstered stools with backs that were used in the first bar were also in this one. A long wall of a large-scale patterned wallpaper constituted one side of the bar.
However, the most striking component of this bar is Lapidus' manipulation of the ceiling plane. A cornice dropped about two feet from the main ceiling and another ceiling installed at that level. This ceiling, about one-foot deep, lowered the ceiling plane of the bar. It also overhung the bar area about two-feet to provide a ceiling plane for those who stood behind the bar stools to order or to visit with those seated. The Poodle Room of the Fontainebleau Hotel also deed by Lapidus illustrates a similar technique.
The bar was raised on a plinth to separate it from the adjacent dining room space. The cornice extended beyond the bar counter to overhang the entire bar area. Again, the cornice lowered the ceiling plane Loooking the bar; Lookjng floor raised the space, so that the void where bartenders and patrons gathered felt more enclosed and intimate.
The Decade of Williamson M. This interior was published in Interior De8 and documented in photographs on the American Memory, Library of Congress web site.
Down the Line appeared as a bowed line of chairs in front of the bar counter, while the cornice above followed the same contour. The contrast between the fascia of the soffit and the actual ceiling plane differentiated it from the surrounding surfaces while still making the visual connection to the bar. Lyle's decision to introduce the curve in a space where the majority of the lines and surfaces are angular assisted in identifying the bar as a ificant feature.
Hunker created a blend of "contemporary Oriental and 18th century French styles" throughout the interior space. The large bar included stools with low backs, upholstered in faux ocelot fur fabric. The cornice was paneled in wood and extended two feet below the ceiling plane. The counter was surfaced in dark marble, and the soffit was also of a reflective material.
In Williamson M. Like Themley's in Akron, Lyle chose an animal print, leopard, for the front of the bar counter. The overall shape of the counter and cornice was the same, but the upholstered front of the counter was executed in a corrugated pattern of ridges and grooves. Similar to his de for Gum Wah, the edge of the top portion of Bottoms Up was painted black to contrast the ceiling plane and better define the bar space.
A pagoda-type triangular bar dominated the space; the cornice imitated roof shapes of Buddhist temples. This is a good example of a cornice-counter relationship in which each component stood on its own. The cornice and counter differed in shape, material and exacting detail, but they were related thematically. Overall, a free-standing object-like hut was created as the bar area, around which upholstered bar stools were arranged. Maurer was commissioned to de the XII Arches restaurant which was located in the basement of an old office building in Westbury, Long Island.
In such an unlikely place, Maurer deed a dramatic, stage-like setting for the bar. An oversized circular wooden Looking for bottoms up to age 45 with a stained glass soffit set the stage above the bar. Behind the bar dark wood cabinets with glass doors and shelves held liquor bottles which added to the spectacle. The bar countertop and face were also rendered in dark wood; they were understated compared to the bright turquoise unpholstered barstool seats arranged Down the Line.
This space functioned as a gathering place for fans, club members and executive employees. The same lime green wool carpeting that covered the floor of the interior crept up the side of the bar to the counter, where the edge had been padded with black vinyl.
For Bottoms Up, the bar shape was replicated directly above the service counter. The cornice, Lookking, was composed of a framed box of ash planks. The exposed, hurricane-proof rib cage of the slanted exterior walls encompassed a promenade and two restaurants.
Large-scaled flags, pendants and buoys that were suspended from the ceiling plane added depth and thematic context. The bar in the Landing Restaurant featured bay views. Honduran mahogany was used extensively throughout for the surfaces of the bar front and the angled defining element above. Larson's goal was to retain as much of the original building as possible-the majority of which was gottoms with light oak accents.
The photograph of the bar that was published in Interior De appeared in black and white, illustrating contrasts of light and dark. The counter of the bar and the bar stools appear quite dark, but the surface of the bar counter is highly reflective.