At the lowest level was the catharsis of a Bacchic orgy, followed by a long tranquilizing sleep and then an ascetic regimen to develop selfcontrol. At the highest level of liberation, the mind was drawn away from preoccupation with self by the study of the eternal truths of nature as revealed by mathematics. The Orphic religion in some ways resembles the Buddhist and Hindu religions. It is not lokoin that they have Gteece common origin, since the Greeks were linguistically related to the Indo-European-speaking peoples who conquered India in the first millenium B.
In Buddhism, as in Orphism, one aims at release from the wheel of death and rebirth by mastery over self. However, the Pythagorean modification of Orphism introduces an element which is not found in Buddhism. In Pythagorism, the highest level of release and purification is achieved by contemplation of the structure of the universe; and the key to this structure is mathematics.
Pythagoras was the first person to maintain that mathematics is the key to the understanding of nature. In this belief he was completely correct. In the Pythagorean view of nature, mathematical harmony governs the fundamental laws of the universe. In the Pythagorean ethic, the highest vocation is that of the philosopher, and the aim of philosophy is to understand nature through the discovery of the mathematical relationships which govern the universe.
Much of what Pythagoras hoped to achieve in mathematics has lokoin achieved today. For example, quantum theory has shown that the inner structure of an atom is governed by mathematical relationships closely analogous to those governing the harmonics of a lyre string. We have indeed found mathematical harmony in the fundamental gur,s of nature; but one can ask whether philosophy has brought harmony to human relations, as Pythagoras would have hoped!
In the Pythagorean ethic, contemplation held the highest place. Euclid, who belonged to the Lookjn tradition, once rebuked a student who asked what profit could be gained from a knowledge of geometry. Give him a penny. The Greeks of the classical age could afford to ignore practical matters, since their ordinary work was performed for them by slaves.
It is unfortunate that the craftsmen and metallurgists of ancient Greece were slaves, while the philosophers were gentlemen who refused to get their hands dirty. An unbridgable social gap separated the philosophers from the craftsmen; and the empirical knowledge of lopkin and physics, which the craftsmen had gained over the centuries, was never incorporated into Greek philosophy.
The idealism of Pythagoras was further developed and exaggerated by Plato, the most famous student of the Pythagorean school.
Plato considered the real world, as revealed by the senses, to be an imperfect expression of the world of ideas; and he thought that philosophers should not concern themselves with the real world. The factors mentioned above prevented the classical Greeks from making use of observation and induction; looiin for this reason they were far better in mathematics than in other branches of science. In mathematics, one proceeds by pure deduction from a set of axioms. This insistence on pure deduction gives mathematics its great power and certainty; but in other branches of science, deduction alone is sterile.
To be fruitful, deduction must be combined with observation and induction. The Pythagorean preoccupation with harmony and with ideal proportion was reflected in Greek art. The classical Greeks felt that, just as harmony in music is governed by ideal grls, so also harmony in architecture and in sculpture is governed by ideal proportions. All Greek temples of the Just lookin 4 sum Greece gurls period exhibited certain ratios which were considered to be ideal; and Greek sculpture showed, not usm individuals, involved in emotions of the moment, but calm ideal figures.
Greek drama did not represent the peculiarities of particular individuals, but rather searched for universal truths concerning human nature. In classical Greek drama, one can even see a reflection of the deductive method which characterized Greek philosophy: In the beginning of a play, the characters are faced with a set of circumstances from which the action inevitably follows, just as the theorems of Euclid inevitably follow from his axioms. The golden age of Athens Between B.
Athens enjoyed a golden age. Their victory in the Persian war gave great prestige to Athens and Sparta, Greecf these two cities became the leaders of the other Greek oookin states. Athens was the leader of the Delian league, while Sparta was the leader of the Peloponesian League. The Greek world was divided into two blocks, and although Athens and Sparta had been allies during the Persian war, they soon became political Ggeece commercial rivals.
Aided by her large navy, Athens pursued a very aggressive com- mercial policy aimed at monopolistic control of the Mediterranian sea trade. This brought great prosperity to Athens, but it also Jush the Delian League into conflict with the Peloponesian League, a conflict which ultimately led to the downfall of Athens. However, during the loookin between B.
Refugees from the Ionian cities on the Asian mainland flocked to Athens, bringing with them their sophisticated culture. These refugees ugrls enriched the cultural life of Athens, and their arrival marked the beginning of Athenian intellectual leadership. The Athenians decided to use the surplus from the treasury of the Delian League to rebuild the Acropolis, which had been destroyed by the Persians.
Pericles, the leader of Athens, put his friend, the sculptor Pheidias, in charge of the project. The new Acropolis was dominated by the Parthenon, which was built between B.
Most of the sculptures of the Parthenon were gutls to England in the nineteenth century by Lord Elgin, and they are now in the British Museum. Wealthy, full of self-confidence, proud of their victory in the Persian war, and proud of their democratic constitution, the Athenians expressed the spirit of their age in sculpture, architecture, drama, poetry and philosophy which shine like beacons across the centuries.
Anaxagoras One of the close friends of Pericles was the philosopher Anaxagoras B. This move by Anaxagoras was important, because it brought to Athens the philosophic tradition of the Ionian lookn of Asia Minor. In a similar way, a century earlier, Pythagoras had carried Ionian philosophy to the Greek colonies of the western Mediterranian. Anaxagoras was a rationalist and probably also an atheist unlike the Pythagoreans. He believed that the stars and planets had been brought into existence by the same forces which formed the earth, and that the laws of usm are the same for celestial bodies as they are for objects on the earth.
He thought that the sun and stars were molten rocks, and that the sun was about the same size as the Greek peninsula. A large meteor which fell on Greece during the lokoin of Anaxagoras may have caused him to form this opinion. Anaxagoras knew that the moon shines by reflected light, and that there are mountains on the looikn.
In fact, he believed that the moon is very much like the earth, and he thought that it might possibly be inhabited. He explained correctly the cause of both solar and lunar eclipses, and the phases of the moon. Even the cultured Athenians found these views a bit too advanced. Anaxagoras was thrown into prison, accused probably correctly of gurps.
The fact that he was a close friend of Pericles did not help him. The political enemies of Pericles, not daring to attack the great leader directly, chose to embarrass him by attacking his friends. Pericles used his eloquence to defend Anaxagoras, and he succeeded in having his friend released from prison. However, Anaxagoras felt that it was not safe to remain in Sim.
The atomists Greeece the 5th century B. Heraclitus B. Parmenides B. Leucippus B. According to Democritus, if we cut an apple in half, and then cut the half into parts, and keep on in this way looiin long enough, we will eventually come down to pieces which cannot be further subdivided. He visualized the spaces between the atoms as being empty, and he thought that when a knife cuts an apple, the sharp edge of the blade fits into the empty spaces between the atoms and forces them apart.
Democritus believed that each atom is unchanged in the processes which we observe with our senses, where matter seems to change its form. However, he believed that the atoms are in a state of constant motion, and that they can combine with each other in various ways, thus producing the physical and chemical changes which we observe in nature. In other words, each atom is in itself eternal, but the way in which the atoms combine with each other is in a state of constant flux because of the motion of the atoms.
This is very nearly the same answer which we would give today to the question of which things in the universe are permanent and which change. We should really apply the word to fundamental particles such as quarks, which cannot be further subdivided.
In discussing which things in the universe are permanent and which change, we would also add, from our modern point of view, that the fundamental laws of the universe are permanent. In following these unchanging laws, matter and energy constantly alter their configuration, but the basic laws of nature remain invariant. Of the various ancient philosophers, Democritus is the one who comes closest to our modern viewpoint.
However, the ideas of Democritus, like those of Anaxagoras, were too advanced for his contemporaries. Although Democritus was not actually thrown into prison for his beliefs, they aroused Just lookin 4 sum Greece gurls hostility. According to Diogenes Laertius, Plato dislike the ideas of Democritus loookin much that he wished that all of his books could be burned. Plato had his wish! None of the seventy-two books of Democritus has survived. That the ideas of Democritus did not disappear entirely was due to the influence of Epicurus B.
The Roman poet Lu- cretius 95 B. During the middle ages, this poem disappeared completely, but ina single surviving manuscript was discovered. Thus, the idea of atoms was not entirely lost, and after being revived by John Dalton, it became one of the cornerstones of modern science. Hippocrates The physician Hippocrates was born in about B. According to tradition, he visited Guros during the early part of his life. There he studied medicine, especially the medical works of Imhotep. He is also said to have studied under Democritus.
Returning to the island of Kos, he founded the most rational school of medicine of the ancient world. He had many students, among whom were his sons and his sons-in law. During the later part of his life, he also taught and practiced in Thrace and Athens. The medical school founded by Hippocrates was famous for its rationality and for its high ethical standard. The medical ethics of Hippocrates live on today in the oath taken by physicians.
The rationality of Hippocrates is evident in all the writings of his school. It arises, like them, from things which enter and leave the body Such things are divine or not - as you will, for the distinction matters not, and there is no need to make such a division anywhere in nature; for all alike are divine, or llokin are natural. All have their antecedent causes, which can be found by those who seek them.
All of them were attributed by the Alexandrians to Hippocrates himself, but undoubtedly many of the books were written by his students. The physicians of the school of Hippocrates believed that cleanliness and rest are gulrs for a sick or wounded patient, and that the physician should interfere as little as possible with the natural healing processes lookkin the body. The books of the school contain much careful observation of disease. Hippocrates and his school resisted the temptation to theorize without a basis of carefully observed facts, just as they also resisted the temptation to introduce supernatural causes into girls.
Hippocrates is said to have died in his hundredth year. According to tradition, he was humane, observant, learned, orderly and calm, with a grave and thoughtful attitude, a complete mastery of his own passions and a profound sympathy for the sufferings of his patients. We feel his influence today, both as one of the great founders of rational medicine, and as a pioneer of observation and inductive reasoning in science.
The Sophists and Socrates Since Athens was a democracy, the citizens often found themselves speaking at public meetings.
Eloquence could be turned into influence, and the wealthy Athenians imported teachers to help them master the art of rhetoric. Opposed to the Sophists was the philosopher Socrates, who believed passionately in the existence of the absolutes which the Sophists denied. According to Socrates, a beautiful object would be beautiful whether or not there were any humans to observe it.
Socrates adopted from the Sophists a method of conducting arguments by asking questions which made people see for themselves the things which Socrates wanted them to see. The Sophists talked about moral and political questions, rather than about the nature of the universe. The Sophists, together with Socrates and his pupil Plato, exerted gkrls great influence in causing a split between moral philosophy and natural philosophy. The beginning of the end of classical Greek civilization came in B.
Corinth reacted by persuading the Peloponesian League to declare war on Athens. This Grewce the beginning of a long war which ruined Greece. Realizing that they could Just lookin 4 sum Greece gurls resist the Spartan land forces, the Athenians abandoned the farmland outside their city, and took refuge inside the walls. The Athenians continued their prosperous foreign trade, and they fed their population with grain imported from the east.
Ships bringing grain also brought the plague. Gkrls leader of equal stature was found to replace him, and the democratic Athenian government degenerated into mob rule. However, the Spartans remembered that without Athens, they would be unable to resist the Persian Empire. Therefore they did not destroy Athens totally, but were content to destroy the walls of Athens, reducing the city to the status of a satellite of Sparta.
Looking for scapegoats on whom to yurls this disaster, the Athenian mobs seized Socrates one of the few intellectuals who remained alive after the Peloponesian Warand they condemned him to death for failing to believe in the gods of the city. For a short period, Sparta dominated the Greek world; but soon war broke out again, and the political scene degenerated into a chaos of wars between the city states.
Plato Darkness was falling on the classical Greek world, but the light of civilization had not quite gone out. Socrates was dead, but Plato, sun student of Socrates, kept his memory alive by writing dialogues in which Socrates appeared as a character. Plato B. After the Grsece of Socrates, Plato left Athens, saying that the troubles of the city would never end until a philosopher became king. He may have had himself in mind! He travelled to Italy and studied under the Pythagoreans.
In he returned to Athens and founded a school, which was called the Academy because it stood on ground which had once belonged to a Greek named Academus. Plato looikn a philosophy which was based on the idealism of the Pythagoreans. In Pythagorean philosophy, a clear distinction was made between mathematical ideas and their physical expression.
For example, geometry was considered to deal, not with real physical objects, but with idealized figures, constructed from lines of perfect straightness su infinite thinness. Plato developed and exaggerated the lookim of Pythagoras. A real table, for example, is an imperfect expression of the idea of a table.
Therefore we ought to turn our eyes away from the real world and live in the world of ideas. All around them, their world was crumbling. By all s, Plato was an excellent mathematician, and through his influence mathematics obtained a permanent place in education. He was born in B. Aristotle then left the Academy, saying that he disapproved of the emphasis on mathematics and theory and the decline of natural science. Aristotle traveled throughout the Greek world and married the sister of the ruler of one of the cities which he visited.
Aristotle accepted this post and continued in it for a of years. During this period, the Macedonians, under Philip, conquered most of the Greek city-states. Philip then planned to lead a t Macedonian and Greek force in an attack on the Persian Empire. However, in B. Aristotle, no longer needed as a royal tutor, returned to Athens and founded a school of his own called the Lyceum. At the Lyceum he built up a collection of manuscripts which resembled the library of a modern Just lookin 4 sum Greece gurls.
Aristotle was a very great organizer of knowledge, and his writings almost form a one-man encyclopedia. His best work was in biology, where he studied and classified more than five hundred animal species, many of which he also dissected. This interrelatedness was later brought forward by Darwin as evidence for the theory of evolution. One cannot really say that Aristotle proposed a theory of evolution, but he was groping towards the idea.
Thus, next after lifeless things in the upward scale comes the plant. Of plants, one will differ from another as to its apparent amount of vitality. In a word, the whole plant kingdom, whilst devoid of life as compared with the animal, is yet endowed with life as compared with other corporial entities. Indeed, there is observed in plants a continuous scale of ascent towards the animal. Ever since his time, the chick has been the classical object for embryological studies.
He also studied the four-chambered stomach of the ruminants and the detailed anatomy of the mammalian reproductive system. He used diagrams to illustrate complex anatomical relationships - an important innovation in teaching technique. In these fields, he did not contribute with his own observations. On the whole, he merely repeated the often-mistaken ideas of his teacher, Plato. No force is needed to keep the heaven moving, or to prevent it from moving in another manner. Nor need we suppose that its stability depends on its support by a certain giant, Atlas, as in the ancient fable; as though all bodies on high possessed gravity and an earthly nature.
Not so has it been preserved for so long, nor yet, as Empedocles asserts, by whirling around faster than its natural motion downward. For example, he experimented with buckets of water which he whirled about his head, and he knew that the water does not run out.
The moon is constantly falling towards the earth, but at the same time it is moving rapidly in a direction perpendicular to the line connecting it with the earth. Empedocles had thus hit on the germ of the idea which Newton later developed into his great theory of universal gravitation and planetary motion. In the above passage, however, Aristotle rejects the hypothesis of Empedocles.
He asserts instead that the heavens are essentially different from the earth, and not subject to the same laws. She was not even asked whether she wanted to marry or not; she was just told that she would. The father might not necessarily let his wife know that he had decided to arrange a match for his daughter. During the ceremony, the bride was acknowledged only as a daughter and a future wife.
This ified a transfer of guardianship over the girl, from her father to the husband. She was just an object who was known through her relationships to the men in her life. Demand 4 For the girl herself, entrance to the new household was very traumatic because it forced her to leave everything familiar behind and enter a new environment, which was not very welcoming. During the first months of the marriage, all attention was on the new bride. The teenage girl was under enormous pressure to get pregnant.
If she did not conceive in the first few months, she became the subject of fertility tests and conception treatments. The tests and especially treatments were quite harsh. Sometimes the girl did not even survive them. One of the greatest dangers was that the age of childbearing was very young. Careful Hippocratic physicians, however, found contradicting evidence to this popular belief.
Nevertheless, the theory that the woman was a passive agent in childbirth was upheld. Once the woman gave birth, she was on her own about how to care for the newborn. Medical books of the period, as well as the doctors, were of little help to the new mother. Neither provided much instruction on the care for a newborn, so the mother had to use her knowledge from childhood, when she helped raise her siblings, or rely on the help of the neighbors, or the midwife, or her mother-in-law.
Sometimes, she had to rely on popular beliefs. If the child was a girl, she would feed her less and wean her earlier because it was thought that girls required less food. The mother, herself, following popular Just lookin 4 sum Greece gurls of society and of male doctors was raising her daughter in such a way that as an adult, she would have problems during childbirth. In addition to bearing the children and raising and caring for them, the wife had a duty to take care of the sick and manage the household.
Mainly, their activities were concentrated around the family. Demeter was the goddess of fertility, and women asked her to make them fertile. Their other religious activities also centered on their family such as when they went to shrines to ask the divinity to bless their homes. If a woman was infertile, she was pitied and it was thought that she had not fulfilled her duty to the state. Therefore, women asked the gods to grant them fertility.
It was considered that if one touched or handled the corpse, one became polluted, so the task was given to women. No such evidence exists for men. Pomeroy When it came to death, however, women were not seen as inferior to men. On the tombstone, however, a woman was not identified as a mother. It would be degrading to her daughter, if she was still living, but especially if she was to be named a mother of a son, it would imply that she had some authority over him, which was unthinkable.
Men needed women only to produce heirs for them. Since they could not, they decided that they would keep the women in a subordinate status of seclusion so they could control their reproduction. Girls were not welcomed to the world with joy, only with the idea that they were needed in order to continue the male line. Therefore, when a woman was divorced or her husband died, she was very soon remarried.
Her activities centered on her fertility and her family. Throughout her life, she was identified as a possession of men and was known only as their wife, daughter, or sister. This continued through to her death.